Richard Grusin's study investigates how the establishment of national parks participated in the production of American national identity after the Civil War. The creation of America's national parks is usually seen as an uncomplicated act of environmental preservation. Grusin argues, instead, that parks must be understood as complex cultural technologies for the reproduction of nature as landscape art. He explores the origins of America's three major parks - Yosemite, Yellowstone and Grand Canyon - in relation to other forms of landscape representation in the late nineteenth century. He examines such forms as photography, painting, and mapping, plus a wide range of travel narratives, scientific and nature writing, and fiction. Grusin shows that while establishing a national park does involve preserving an area of land as a 'natural' rather than economic asset, a ranch or mine for instance, it also transforms the landscape into a culturally constructed object called 'nature'.
Bright Sparks Literacy Project is a set of reading materials that provide staged opportunities for the progressive acquisition of literacy skills in the early years of schooling. Each title draws on a broad base of literacy skills, yet focuses on one or two skills, enabling teachers to appropriately select texts according to student's perceived need. Readers are exposed to a range of appropriate text types and language structures. Texts and activities have been developed around common themes explored in contemporary classrooms, allowing teachers to capitalise on the use of context when reading and writing.
Her refusal to give up her seat on a bus helped establish the civil rights movement.
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